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October 04, 2021
What does 1+1, 2+1, 3+1 and 4+1 mean in Turkish Real estate ?

It’s always been asked, especially by foreigners who want to buy apartments in Turkey, about common symbols used to denote the number of rooms in the apartment. These numbers are well known in the Turkish real estate market and among Turkish citizens, but they may be somewhat strange for foreigners, as we mentioned.

For example, for three-room houses, the expression 2 + 1 is used, so what does it mean? This means that this house has two bedrooms and a living room "salon". Of course, these numbers do not include spaces such as the bathroom, balcony, and garden, if any.

These numbers are one of the basic features of the apartment, and one of the first things to ask about when buying or renting alike.

Considering the foregoing, the most common room distribution in Turkey is as follows:

   ♦ 1 + 1 apartments: they consist of a bedroom + living room "salon", and mostly in this model the kitchen is American style (open to the living room).

   ♦ 2+1 apartments: it consists of two bedrooms (parents' room and children's room) + salon. The kitchen can be open to the salon or separate according to the metric area of ​​the apartment.

   ♦ 3 + 1 apartments: they consist of 3 bedrooms (one for the parents, and two for the children) + a salon, and most likely they have a separate kitchen and a balcony.

   ♦ 4+1 apartments: it consists of 4 rooms (all of them may be used for sleeping or one of the rooms may be used to receive guests independent of the living room) + salon, and this type most definitely has a          kitchen that is separate from the living room.

   ♦ 5+1 apartments: consisting of 5 rooms (often one of them is a guest room, in addition to a bedroom for guests, and this is according to the apartment residents and their preference on how to distribute the rooms) + a salon, this type of apartment is often on the ground floors where a garden or a private terrace is attached to it. .

These types that we mentioned are the most common in Turkish residential apartments, and certainly there may be apartments with more rooms than what we mentioned, but they are often duplexes, and also, we do not forget to mention the one-room apartments "studio", which is symbolized by 0 + 1.

 

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September 27, 2021
What is return On Investment Value (ROI) in real estate in Turkey

We talked in our previous article, about the types of real estate investment in general, and the forms of real estate investment in Turkey in particular, and we mentioned that real estate investment has different patterns depending on the period within which the investment return is expected, and we also mentioned that the investment aspects vary based on the form of this return, either by resale or rent of the property.

Read Previous article: How to invest in Real Estate in Turkey ?

However, in the previous article, we did not mention the value of the investment return and the amount of expected profits that the investor will earn, so in this article we will clarify the average investment return for each type of investment that we explained previously.

Before going into details, it is necessary to refer to several important points that we considered during our research and the results that we have reached:

♦ For the figures in this article, we relied on several official and unofficial sources concerned with the Turkish real estate market and monitoring the rates of increase in prices according to the difference in supply and demand, and the difference in the annual inflation rate.

♦ We used the Turkish lira to calculate the return on investment on an annual basis.

♦ We chose Istanbul as it is the most popular city for investors, and therefore the percentages mentioned in this article may not apply to the investment returns of real estate outside Istanbul.

♦ We will mention the average rate of return on investment, which certainly may vary from one region to another.

♦ In addition to the above, we relied on our experience in the real estate field and our daily monitoring of the movement of the real estate market in Turkey and the change in real estate prices and rents.

1 - Return on investment by leasing the property:

Real estate rental is one of the most common forms of investment in Turkey, and it is very popular among Turkish citizens themselves, as we find that many Turkish citizens prefer buying and renting a property over any other type of investment, due to the high demand for rental throughout the year.

Depending on the details we mentioned in our previous article, the annual rental returns for real estate in Turkey are as follows:

♦ Residential apartments: annual rental return of 4% as a minimum of the property value.

♦ Furnished apartments: annual rental return of 6% as a minimum of the property value.

♦ Commercial shops: The annual rental return is 5% as a minimum of the property value.

♦ Hotel apartments: annual rental return of 8% as a minimum of the property value.

Note: Regarding hotel apartments and furnished apartments, it is worth noting that they may be vacant during certain periods of the year, but they are rented on a daily or weekly basis in good prices during the tourist seasons, and we have taken this into account in the mentioned percentage.

2 - Return on investment through resale:

Real estate prices in Turkey are having a steady annual increase. According to the Turkish Statistical Institute, the average increase in housing prices during the past year was 30%. This was certainly not a natural increase, as it was accompanied by the global spread of the Corona epidemic, which prompted a large percentage of the population to turn to fixed assets, in addition to the difference in the price of the Turkish lira, as is known.

However, in general, real estate prices in Istanbul have an annual increase that varies according to the type of property and its region, and accordingly we can determine the return on investment for resale as follows:

♦ Ready real estate (residential and commercial apartments): 10% annual increase in the value of the property as a minimum.

♦ Real estate under construction: 25-30% increase upon delivery of the value of the price paid in instalments.

♦ Lands prepared for construction: The construction project is a high-return investment, as the land, after construction is finished, will be divided into residential apartments and shops, the value of the investment return may double several times by the end of the project. However, several things must be considered, namely that this type of project needs to obtain many licenses, in addition to the significant increase in the prices of building materials, as the increase during the first eight months of this year reached 45%, according to the Turkish Statistical Institute.

♦ Purchase of agricultural land and resale when it enters the regulatory area: It is not possible to determine a fixed percentage of the expected return on investment for such a project, due to the different regions and their proximity or distance from government projects and public utilities such as airports, industrial cities, and tourist areas. But we mention as an example of this type of investment the lands located on both sides of the Istanbul Canal project, where a decade ago these lands were almost empty lands and sold at cheap prices, while at the present time, after the announcement of the canal project, it has become one of the most expensive areas. It made the owners many times the purchase price.

 

In conclusion, we would like to note that the percentages mentioned in this article are correct until the date of its publication, and they may change according to the movement of supply and demand. For any additional information on the return on investment in real estate in Turkey, you are welcome to contact us to take the advice from real estate experts.

 

 

 

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September 17, 2021
Metro lines of Istanbul

The Istanbul Metro is a rapid transit railway network that serves the city of Istanbul, Turkey. It is operated by Metro Istanbul, a public enterprise, controlled by the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality.

History:

The first underground line dates back to the 19th century which entered service on January 17, 1875. It is the world's second-oldest underground urban rail line after the London Underground, which was built in 1863, and the first underground urban rail line in continental Europe.

Still today this short line (573 m) is an important means of urban transport. Trains operate every 3.5 minutes, and a trip takes 1.5 minutes. The upper station is linked to Taksim Square by a vintage tram.

Lines:

The Istanbul Metro has 8 current lines that includes 107 stations in service, a System length of 133 KM, 647 metros and a Daily ridership of around 1,36 million.

M1 Yenikapı ↔ Atatürk Airport / Kirazlı:

The oldest section of the metro which opened in 1989, runs from Yenikapı and Aksaray Square in Old Istanbul via Istanbul's main Otogar (bus terminal) to Atatürk Airport and Kirazli.

The line is 26.1 km long, has 23 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 60 minutes.

M2 Yenikapı ↔ Hacıosman:

Construction started in 1991 and the first section between Taksim and Levent opened after some delays in September 2000. All stations have escalators and an elevator. It connects Yenikapı with Şişhane in Beyoğlu, Taksim Square, then north via Şişli through the modern business and residential sections of the Levents as far as Hacıosman.

The line is 23.5 km long, has 16 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 30 minutes.

M3 Kirazlı ↔ Metrokent:

Opened in 2013 and connects between Kirazli and MetroKent in Basaksehir.

The line is 11 km long, has 9 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 20 minutes.

M4 Kadıköy ↔ Tavşantepe:

This is the first metro line on the Asian side of Istanbul opened in 2012, departing from the ferry terminal at Kadiköy and running fully underground via Kozyatağı and Bostancı to Kartal.

The line is 26.5 km long, has 19 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 40 minutes.

M5 Üsküdar ↔ Çekmeköy:

Opened in 2017 and it is the second line on the Asian side and the first one to have an automatic system that does not need a conductor.

The line extends from Uskudar to Yamanevler.

The line is 20 km long, has 16 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 16 minutes.

M6 Levent ↔ Boğaziçi Üniversitesi/Hisarüstü:

Opened in 2015 it is a light metro line and currently the shortest in Istanbul also referred to as the Mini-Metro. It begins in Levent and extends to Bogazici Üniversitesi.

The line is 3.3 km long, has 4 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM and the total trip duration is 7 minutes.

M7 Mecidiyeköy ↔ Mahmutbey:

Opened partially on October 28th, 2020. It connects Mecidiyeköy to Mahmutbey.

The line is 18 km long, has 15 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM.

M9 Olimpiyat ↔ Bahariye:

Opened partially to Bahariye on 29 May 2021 and took over the M3 Olimpiyat-Ikitelli branch.

The line is 6 km long, has 5 stations and operates from 06:00 AM to 00.00 AM.

Stations:

The Istanbul Metro system has a total of 107 stations in operation with 104 more under construction.

Out of the 107 operating stations of the Istanbul Metro:

♦ 91 are fully underground.      

♦ 7 are elevated stations.

♦ 7 are on an embankment or at-grade.

♦ 2 are partially underground.

Future extensions:

As part of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality goal of expanding the size of the city rail transportation network to 630 km by 2030, the Istanbul Metro has several lines that are under construction or planned.

Currently 5 lines and 104 stations are under construction.

Extensions:

M1b Kirazlı ↔ Halkalı:

The line will be 9.70 km long and have 9 stations. Planned to open in late 2023.

M3  Bakırköy-İDO ↔ Kirazlı:

The line will be 9 km long and have 7 stations. Planned to open in September 2022.

Başakşehir ↔ Kayaşehir:

The line will be 6.20 km long and have 5 stations. Planned to open in early 2022.

M4 Tavşantepe ↔ Sabiha Gökçen Airport:

The line will be 7.4 km long and have 4 stations. Planned to open in late 2021.

Tavşantepe ↔ Tuzla:

The line will be 7.9 km long and have 7 stations. Planned to open in 2025.

M5 Çekmeköy–Sancaktepe ↔ Sultanbeyli:

The line will be 10.9 km long and have 9 stations. Planned to open in 2023.

M7  Kabataş ↔ Mecidiyeköy:

The line will be 6.5 km long and have 4 stations. Planned to open in 2022.

Mahmutbey ↔ Esenyurt:

The line will be 18.5 km long and have 12 stations. Planned to open in 2024.

M9 Ataköy ↔ Bahariye:

The line will be 10.8 km long and have 9 stations. Planned to open in 2022.

New lines:

M8 Bostancı-İDO ↔ Dudullu:

The line will be 14.27 km long and have 13 stations. Planned to open in June 2022.

M10 Pendik Sahil ↔ Kaynarca Merkez:

The line will be 5.10 km long and have 2 stations. Planned to open in 2023.

M11  Gayrettepe ↔ İstanbul Airport:

The line will be 37.2 km long and have 9 stations. Planned to open in late 2021.

Halkalı ↔ İstanbul Airport:

The line will be 31.5 km long and have 9 stations. Planned to open in late 2022.

M12 Göztepe ↔ Ümraniye:

The line will be 13.03 km long and have 11 stations. Planned to open in 2023.

Planned or on hold:

M2 Yenikapı ↔ Sefaköy:

The line will be 14 km long and have 11 stations.

M13 Hastane ↔ Yenidoğan:

The line will be 6.90 km long and have 6 stations.

 

The underground metro network is expected to cover the whole city of Istanbul by 2030 which will benefit the city and reduce traffic.

In Taksim real estate we usually advice our clients to invest into properties that are close to planned metro stations which will make a good profit of investment after opening the new lines.

Here are some of our properties in Istanbul that are close to metro stations:

Apartments For Sale in Umraniye close to yamanevler metro station  

Apartments For sale in kagithane close to kagithane metro station         

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September 06, 2021
Bridges of Istanbul

One of the most significant attributes of Istanbul is its placement between two continents with a strait separating the two parts, so its quite normal that the city should have many bridges linking between its two sides. The bridges of Istanbul are more than just a mean of transportation and access from one continent to another, these days the bridges represent an attraction in their own representing a symbol of the charm and beauty of Istanbul.

Here are the bridges over the Bosphorus strait…

♦ Bosphorus Bridge:

The Bosphorus Bridge known officially as the 15 July Martyrs Bridge is a suspension bridge spanning the Bosphorus strait (Turkish: Boğaziçi) in Istanbul, Turkey, thus connecting Europe and Asia. The bridge extends between Ortaköy (in Europe) and Beylerbeyi (in Asia).

It is a gravity-anchored suspension bridge with steel towers and inclined hangers. It is 1,560 m (5,118 ft) long with a deck width of 33.40 m (110 ft). The distance between the towers (main span) is 1,074 m (3,524 ft) and the total height of the towers is 165 m (541 ft). The clearance of the bridge from sea level is 64 m (210 ft).

Its construction started on February 20th, 1970 and ended on June 1st, 1973. The bridge was opened on October 30th, 1973.

Upon its completion in 1973, the Bosphorus Bridge had the fourth-longest suspension bridge span in the world, and the longest outside the United States Currently, the Bosphorus Bridge has the 33rd-longest suspension bridge span in the world.

Every October, the annual Intercontinental Istanbul Eurasia Marathon crosses the bridge on its way from Asia to Europe. During the marathon, the bridge is closed to vehicular traffic.

In October, visitors participate in the 'fun run' and cross the bridge on foot. Many take picnics to enjoy the view.

♦ Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge:

The Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge ("Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror Bridge"), also known as the Second Bosphorus bridge, is a bridge in Istanbul, Turkey spanning the Bosphorus strait.

The bridge is named after the 15th-century Ottoman Sultan Mehmed the Conqueror, who conquered the Byzantine capital, Constantinople (Istanbul), in 1453. It carries the European route E80 (TEM Highway), Asian Highway 1, Asian Highway 5 and Otoyol 2 highways.

The bridge is situated between İstanbul Hisarüstü (European side) and Kavacık (Asian side). It is a gravity-anchored suspension bridge with steel pylons and vertical hangers. It is 1,510 m long with a deck width of 39 m. The distance between the towers (main span) is 1,090 m and their height over road level is 105 m. The clearance of the bridge from sea level is 64 m.

Its construction started in 1986 and ended on July 3rd, 1988. When completed in 1988, it was the 5th-longest suspension bridge span in the world; today it is the 24th.

♦ Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge:

The Yavuz Sultan Selim Bridge is a bridge for rail and motor vehicle transit over the Bosphorus strait, to the north of two existing suspension bridges in Istanbul, Turkey. It was initially named the Third Bosphorus Bridge. The bridge is located near the Black Sea entrance of the Bosphorus strait, between Garipçe in Sarıyer on the European side and Poyrazköy in Beykoz on the Asian side.

Its construction started on May 29th, 2013. The bridge was opened on August 26th, 2016.

The 58.4-metre-wide (192 ft) bridge is 2,164 m (7,100 ft) in length with a main span of 1,408 m (4,619 ft). The main span is the ninth longest suspension bridge in the world.

At 322 m (1,056 ft), the bridge is one of the tallest bridges in the world. After the Millau Viaduct in France and the Pingtang Bridge in China, it is the third-tallest bridge in the world of any type. The bridge is also one of the world's widest suspension bridges, at 58.4 metres (192 ft) wide.

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August 31, 2021
How to invest in Real Estate in Turkey ?

Real estate investment is the practice of owning immovable assets “real estate” for the purpose of selling or exploiting them. Real estate investment is one of the most important types of investment around the world, because it provides long-term stability for investors, unlike other types of investments such as trade offers, stock trading and other types of investment that Involve risk. This stability or “security” is mainly due to the fixed and permanent nature of real estate, and this is what prompts many major companies and global investors to invest part of their capital in the real estate sector, even if real estate is not the main form of investment that they practice.

This demand for real estate investment prompted many countries to compete to provide facilities and incentives to investors wishing to invest in real estate to attract them to it, such as tax exemptions and amending laws and government procedures and the renewal of infrastructure and the provision of building materials at reasonable prices.

 Turkey was among the pioneers in the real estate investment sector, as the Turkish government worked to provide the necessary facilities for local and foreign real estate investors alike and worked to attract capital from all over the world to invest in real estate in Turkey.

There are many ways and forms of real estate investment in Turkey in terms of the time set for this investment, and in terms of the amount of investment return, and this varies according to the investors’ view of the market, their plans, and their goals for this investment.

Before talking about the types of real estate investment in Turkey, it is necessary to highlight some of the main points that must be considered before deciding to invest money in the real estate sector.

Important points to ensure a successful real estate investment:

♦ Investment evaluation and market monitoring: This is one of the main steps that precede the real estate purchase process, where the investor must calculate the feasibility and investment return from the purchase, determine the best areas and type of investment required, is it short or long-term, in short, determine the expected future return from this investment.

♦ Searching for the best price in the market, and the most appropriate time to buy.

♦ Determining the costs of the purchase process and the expenses that it entails, as well as the annual fees, expenses, and taxes for the property.

♦ Consultation with a real estate expert: This is one of the very important points before any investment, which is to seek advice from experienced people, and this is what we at Taksim Real Estate Consultancy offer to you based on our experience - more than 10 years - with the movement of the real estate market in Turkey and the best real estate suitable for investment.

Real estate investment styles:

By this expression, we mean the expected period to achieve a return on investment, and accordingly we can define it in three styles:

1- Long-term investment: in which the investor does not aim to achieve immediate profit, but rather looks to achieve a double profit after a relatively long period of time, while maintaining the value of the capital, and therefore this type of investment involves a desire for current savings and future profit.

2- Short-term investment: It is the opposite of the previous style, the investor is intended to achieve immediate profit through resale operations, without freezing the capital for long periods, and this type of investment requires experience in the real estate market and continuous monitoring of market movement.

3- Periodic profit investment: This style includes features from the two previous types, as it involves the investor’s desire to save, such as long-term investment, but at the same time, making a profit in the short term, but this profit is in the form of a periodic return from the exploitation of the property, and this return is low. If we compare it to the quick profit that the investor achieves in the short-term investment.

Types of real estate investment in Turkey:

Considering the foregoing real estate investment styles, we can summarize the types of real estate investment in the Turkish market in the following forms:

1- Buying and reselling: It is the most common type of real estate investment, as it simply depends on the market movement and the increase in demand, which raises the price of real estate and thus achieve profit, and its forms include:

• Buying agricultural land, waiting for it to enter the regulatory area, allowing building on it, and then reselling it. This type of land is widely spread in Turkey, especially outside Istanbul and in the eastern states.

• Buying real estate that is still under construction where prices are low and installments are comfortable and sell it on delivery.

• Purchasing lands intended for construction and building on them, and this type requires a relatively large capital in addition to experience, and this may force the investor to form partnerships to execute the project.

• Buying ready-made properties (whether residential or commercial and reselling them).

• Buying, renovating, and reselling old real estate.

2- Purchasing real estate for the purpose of renting: This type achieves for the investor a periodic return (monthly or annually) while retaining the value of his capital as real estate, and this type also can be in several forms, including:

• Buying and renting shops: It achieves a higher investment return than residential real estate.

• Buying and renting residential real estate: This type can achieve a return either by renting the apartment on an annual basis, or the apartment can be furnished and rented on a daily or weekly basis as a furnished apartment with a higher return.

• Buying and renting ready-made hotel apartments, which are popular in Turkey due to the demand of tourists.

3- Acquisition of Turkish citizenship: The Turkish Nationality Law and its amendments stipulate that anyone who owns a property worth $250,000 or more can apply for Turkish citizenship with his wife and children under the age of 18. We have included this item among the types of real estate investment in Turkey because it is already considered a long-term investment. If the family of an investor consists of 5 people on average, the value of obtaining Turkish citizenship for an individual is only $50,000, frozen for 3 years, as the ownership of the property remains for the investor. He can dispose of it after 3 years. While many countries grant their citizenship at an amount higher than this amount and without the right to recover it by the investor later.

In this article, we discussed the most important real estate investment methods in Turkey in general, and we will talk in detail about the expected return on investment for each type of investment in a another article. 

Read also : What is return On Investment ROI in real estate in Turkey

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August 23, 2021
Canal Istanbul ... Mega project in Istanbul within this decade

The Istanbul Canal is a project for the artificial sea-level waterway, which is planned by Turkey, connecting the Black Sea to the Sea of Marmara. Istanbul Canal would bisect the current European side of Istanbul and thus form an island between Asia and Europe.

The Istanbul Canal project also includes the construction of ports (a large container terminal in the Black Sea, close to the Istanbul Airport), bridges, businesses, touristic districts, artificial lakes, logistic centres, and artificial islands to be integrated with the canal, as well as the construction of new earthquake-resistant residential areas with 250,000 residences along the channel. The artificial islands are to be built using soil dug for the canal. Transport projects to be integrated with the canal project include the Halkali-Kapikule high-speed train, the TCDD train project, the Yenikapi-Sefakoy-Beylikduzu and Mahmutbey-Esenyurt metro lines in Istanbul and the D-100 highway crossing, Tem highway and Sazlibosna highway.

Following a tender process, the project is expected to be completed in seven years, with around one and half years of preparatory works and five and half years of construction.

History:

The concept of a canal linking the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara has been proposed at least seven times in history.

The first proposal was made by Ottoman sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (reigned 1520–1566). His architect Mimar Sinan was said to have devised plans for the project. The project was abandoned for unknown reasons

On March 6, 1591, during the reign of Sultan Murad III, an imperial order was issued and work on the project recommenced, but again for unknown reasons the project was stopped.

In 1654 during the reign of Sultan Mehmed IV, pressure for the recommencement of the canal was applied but to no avail.

Sultan Mustafa III (reigned 1757–1774) attempted twice in 1760, but the project could not go ahead due to economic problems.

During the reign of Sultan Mahmud II (reigned 1808–1839), an Imperial Ottoman Committee was established to examine the project once again. A report was prepared in 1813, but no concrete steps were taken. 

Layout:

The project will pass through Lake Küçükçekmece near the Marmara Sea. It will pass through the districts of Avcılar and Başakşehir before reaching the Black Sea in the Arnavutköy district north of the city.

The waterway will have a length of 45 km (28 mi), with a depth of 20.75 m (68.1 ft). Its width will be 360 m (1,180 ft) on the surface and 275 m (902 ft) wide at the bottom.

Benefits:

  • The stated purpose of the project is to reduce the large marine traffic through the Bosporus and minimise the risks and dangers associated particularly with tankers.
  • The new canal will prevent and reduce the sea traffic problem the Bosphorus Strait is currently experiencing by prevent long waiting times and delays for its users.
  • Reducing the environmental risks to which the Bosphorus strait is exposed due to the passage of tankers that threaten marine life in the strait and the surrounding areas and reduce waste that may harm the surrounding archaeological areas.
  • The new canal will provide numerous Earthquake Safe urban projects & development.
  • Six bridges will be built over the canal, transforming Istanbul into a city with two seas.

The importance of real estate investment near the Istanbul Canal:

The new Istanbul Canal and the nearby areas are considered a compass for investors from all around the world, whether they are interested in buying land or apartments in modern complexes, as these areas promise to achieve high profits in the long run.
The real estate surrounding the Istanbul Canal is suitable for housing, investment and Turkish citizenship.
The areas near the Istanbul Canal are : Kucukcekmece - Atakent - Avcilar - Arnavutkoy - Ispartakule
You can view our available properties For sale near canal Istanbul on the following links:

Apartments For Sale in Kucukcekmece 

Apartments For Sale in Atakent 

Apartments For Sale in Avcilar 

Apartments For Sale in Ispartakule

If you have any other inquiries about Properties For Sale Near Canal Istanbul Please Contact us.

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August 10, 2021
Beautiful Istanbul.. A city between two continents

If we want to talk about the city of Istanbul, perhaps the best phrase to with will be the saying of Napoleon Bonaparte I when he said: “If the whole world were one country, Istanbul would be its capital.”

History and Geography:

Throughout its history, Istanbul was the capital of several major states. It was the capital of the Roman Empire, followed by the Byzantine Empire, as well as the Ottoman Empire, where the city became the capital of the Islamic Caliphate. during these eras Istanbul was known by several names: Byzantium, Constantinople, Constantinople, and Islampol which means “the city of Islam,” a name given to it by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror “Fatih” after the conquest in 1453. This conquest was an event of great importance in the world’s history, as most historians consider it, The end of the Middle Ages and the beginning of modern times.

After the establishment of the Turkish Republic in 1923, the capital was moved from Istanbul to Ankara, that became the political capital, but Istanbul retained its position as the tourist and economic capital of Turkey.

Istanbul is in the northwest of the Marmara region in Turkey, and it is divided into two parts separated by the Bosphorus Strait, which makes the city located on two continents at the same time, the western part located in Europe, while the eastern part is in Asia. The city occupies ​​1,830.93 square kilometers, while the metropolitan area, or Istanbul Governorate, occupies ​​6,220 square kilometers.

Istanbul has a temperate climate similar to all parts of the Marmara region, but because of the city's distinctive location, its climate is considered a "transitional climate", as it is located in a middle area between the regions with the oceanic climate of the Black Sea, the humid continental climate of the Balkan Peninsula, and the Mediterranean climate. This diversity in climatic patterns was reflected in the plant diversity, as different types of plants and trees characteristic of each region separately can be found collectively in this region, Istanbul is bordered on its Asian and European sides by two ancient mixed wet forests, the Asian forest is known as the "Alemdağ Forest", and the European one is known as the "Belgrad Forest", and they are the city's lungs and main outlet.

Istanbul is divided administratively into 39 districts, of which 27 make up the actual city, and all these districts are known as "Greater Istanbul", and they are administered by the "Istanbul Büyükşehir Belediyesi Municipal Council". The following link shows the location of Istanbul on the map:

https://goo.gl/maps/ukiMUskVp9YK4rip6

Architecture and Historic Landmarks:

The urban landscape of Istanbul was - and still is - in constant change. During successive historical periods and due to the diversity of races and cultures of the peoples who inhabited the city, the prevailing style of architecture changed with the change of eras. We find in the buildings of Istanbul evidence of the Roman, Byzantine, Genoese, and Ottoman styles, as well as Modern European architectural styles "Baroque and Rococo", all these and other styles contributed to the construction of Istanbul’s diverse identity.

In recent decades, many tall buildings have been built around the city, and the surrounding towns have become part of the city due to the latter's rapid expansion and assimilation of those towns. The highest residential and office buildings are located in the north of the European section, especially in the financial and business districts in the neighborhoods of "Levent", "Maslak" and "Mecidiyeköy", located in the area between the Bosphorus Bridge and the Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge. The centers of the largest and most important Turkish companies and banks are in these areas.

The Asian side of Istanbul, that used to be home to summer resorts and elegant cottages surrounded by extensive gardens of canopy pines, has been growing rapidly since the early second half of the 20th century. The depopulation of these places until the 1960s helped build better infrastructure and create a more organized urban planning than that of other residential areas in the city. However, the real prosperity of the Asian side came with the opening of the "Ankara Asphalt" highway, the Asian extension of the E5 highway, which is located north of Baghdad Boulevard parallel to the railway.

If we want to talk about the tourist and archaeological attractions in Istanbul, perhaps we will need a book to list them all. Here we mention the most prominent and famous ones such as: Hagia Sofba, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Topkapı Palace and Dolmabahce, Galata Tower and Ortakoy Mosque, and many many other tourist and archaeological attractions that each needs a separate article to describe its beauty and its history.

Public Services and Infrastructure:

Istanbul, especially the modern areas surrounding the old city, has a modern and high-tech infrastructure. In Istanbul today, there is a chlorinated filtered water supply, and a sewage treatment system, which is managed by the Istanbul Water and Sanitation Authority, as well as several private sector organizations that undertake water purification. and distribute it to homes. As for electricity, it is secured by the state through the ground distribution networks, and natural gas (home gas) reaches most of Istanbul's homes through the Istanbul Gas Distribution Joint Stock Company, İGDAŞ.

Air and sea navigation:

Istanbul has two main airports, Sabiha Airport on the Asian side, and Istanbul Airport on the European side, where Istanbul Airport is the largest in Europe. Maritime navigation is also vital for Istanbul, since the seas surround the city from all sides, and many Istanbul residents live on the Asian side of the city and work on the European side, or vice versa, so passenger ferries form the basis of daily transportation between the two parts of the city for many of them., even more so than the three suspension bridges that connect both ends of the Bosphorus. Also, these fast-moving ferries and cruise buses form the main link between the mainland of Istanbul and the Princes' Islands.

Highways:

The international route D100 and the European route E80 are the main highways connecting Turkey with Europe. The road network in Istanbul is highly developed and organized, and it is still expanding, and it connects the city from the east to Ankara and from the west to Edirne. There are also two highways surrounding the city, the inner and outer belts of Istanbul.

The July 15 Martyrs' Bridge, located within the inner belt, and Sultan Mehmet Fatih Bridge, located within the outer belt, are the two-connecting links between the European and Asian sides of the Bosphorus. The northern and southern shores of the Golden Horn Strait are connected by a few bridges: Galata Bridge, Ataturk Bridge, and the Gulf Bridge, Which in turn forms part of the network of roads in the outer belt of Istanbul.

The metro, tramway, and express bus network:

Istanbul has one of the widest and most modern subway networks around the world, and it is still under expansion in order to achieve the slogan of the Greater Istanbul Municipality (Metro from anywhere to anywhere), where one or two new lines are opened every year, and this network will become in its final form as shown in the following map: Istanbul has one of the widest and most modern subway networks around the world, and it is still under expansion in order to achieve the slogan of the Greater Istanbul Municipality (Metro from anywhere to anywhere), where one or two new lines are opened every year, and this network will become in its final form as shown in the following map:

https://www.metro.istanbul/YolcuHizmetleri/AgHaritalari

The uncoloured lines on the map indicate metro lines that are still under construction.

Education and health:

Istanbul has many of the best higher education buildings in Turkey, as it has more than 20 public and private universities, and most of the reputable universities are public universities, but in recent years there has been a sudden rise in the number of private universities. Istanbul University is the oldest Turkish educational institution in the city, founded in 1453, and Istanbul Technical University is one of the oldest universities in the city, founded in 1773, and it is also the third oldest technical university dedicated to teaching engineering sciences in the world.

Istanbul has many governments and private hospitals, in addition to a number of clinics, laboratories and research centers equipped with the latest technologies, which has contributed to an increase in the number of tourists coming for the purpose of "medical tourism". Istanbul has become a global destination for laser vision correction, plastic surgery and hair transplantation.

Investment and business:

Successive Turkish governments have worked to attract foreign investments to the country, by providing incentives to foreign investors, starting with tax exemptions and up to participation and partial financing of projects in some states.

As for Istanbul, the name of the city alone may be enough to attract investments, and Istanbul has already witnessed, during the past two decades, a huge turnout by foreign investors in various fields, of which the real estate and construction field had the biggest share.

This turnout from investors coincided with a boom in the Turkish real estate market, which culminated in Resolution No. 5091 relating to Turkish citizenship and its amendment issued on 09/18/2018, which granted those wishing to invest in real estate in Turkey the right to obtain Turkish citizenship in return for buying a property worth 250.000 USD.

This decision and many other government measures constituted support for the national economy and a source of foreign currency for the treasury, as this decision is still in effect until the date of writing this article.

In the following link you can check our Lists of properties for sale in Istanbul 

Properties For Sale In Istanbul 

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August 03, 2021
What is the Metrobus in Istanbul
The Metrobus (Turkish: Metrobüs) is a 50 km (31.1 mi) bus rapid transit route in Istanbul, Turkey. The system has 45 stations that follow the city's ring road via Avcılar, Zincirlikuyu and the Bosphorus Bridge to Söğütlüçeşme using dedicated bus lanes for almost the entire length the route.

The busway, the first section of which opened in 2007 after two years of construction, is used by several Metrobus lines which operate within a ‘closed’ system carrying 800,000 people daily. Its name was coined by the İETT to suggest that the system is a hybrid between a metro train (Turkish: metro) and a bus (Turkish: otobüs).

Metrobus lines:

♦ 34 (Avcılar – Zincirlikuyu).

♦ 34A (Söğütlüçeşme – Cevizlibağ AÖY).

♦ 34AS (Avcılar – Söğütlüçeşme).

♦ 34BZ (Beylikdüzü – Zincirlikuyu).

♦ 34C (Beylikdüzü – Cevizlibağ).

♦ 34G (Beylikdüzü – Söğütlüçeşme) from 10PM to 6AM.

♦ 34U (Uzunçayır – Zincirlikuyu).

♦ 34Z (Zincirlikuyu – Söğütlüçeşme).

Daily number of trips:

♦ Weekdays: 4,034.

♦ Saturdays: 2,632.

♦ Sundays and holidays: 1,724.

Metrobus, Metro and Tram lines intersection points:

♦ With the M1 Metro line in Merter, Zeytinburnu, Bahçelievler and Şirinevler.

♦ With the M2 Metro line in Mecidiyekoy and Zencirlikoy.

♦ With the M4 Metro line in Uzunçayırç.

♦ With the M5 Metro line in Altunizadeç.

♦ With the T1 and T2 Tram Lines in Topkapı, Cevizlibağ, Edirnekapı and Zeytinburnu.

Why should you choose to live near the Metrobus line in Istanbul?

♦ Does not get stuck in traffic since it has its own dedicated lane.

♦ Always available thanks to its 24/7 working hours with an interval on 1-2 minutes between trips (during morning hours).

♦ Most of the attraction sites and famous shopping malls are a walking distance to the metro line.

♦ Links both sides of Istanbul (Europe and Asia).

♦ Intersects with different Metro, Tramway, and bus lines.

♦ Properties close to the Metrobus line are always in high demand (easy to rent and re-sell properties).

♦ Always having a wide choice of projects and investment opportunities.

Fees and Payment Methods:

In order to use all public transportation in Istanbul (boats, subways, buses, tramways, funiculars), you will need the magnetic card (IstanbulKart).

You can purchase the İstanbulkart from the yellow vending machines located in every station of the subway, trams, metrobus, funiculars and some kiosks located near most stops of the public buses. The cost of the card is only 10 Turkish Liras (TL) for the card itself and you need to add credit to it depending on how many trips you are going to ride. Crediting the card is quite simple, just place the card in the right place on the yellow machines, like the one where you purchased the card, wait for the card to be scanned and deposit cash to load your Istanbulkart.

At stations, there will be card readers; just bring your card close once and you can pass through the metal gate.

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